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Tema: USA internt 1900-1945

USA internt 1900-1945
John Newsinger: 1937: the year of the sitdown
International Socialism Journal nr. 127, jul 10 – side 81
Note: The first New Deal that Franklin Roosevelt’s administration began implementing in 1933 was accompanied by an explosion of working class unrest. Workers flooded into the unions and in the course of 1933 and 1934 confronted America’s open shop employers in hundreds of battles across the country, some of which reached near insurrectionary proportions.
John Newsinger: Book review: Vote for Prisoner 9653
International Socialism Journal nr. 126, apr 10 – side 217
Note: Ernest Freeberg, Democracy’s Prisoner: Eugene Debs, the Great War and the Right to Dissent (Harvard University, 2008) £22.95
On 16 June 1918 Eugene Debs, one of the leaders of the American Socialist Party, spoke at a mass meeting in Canton, Ohio. Although he had reservations about the party’s anti-war policy, he nevertheless felt obliged to speak out in solidarity with those of his comrades who had already felt the weight of government repression. He opened his speech with a reference to three imprisoned party activists. They had learned “that it is extremely dangerous to exercise our constitutional right of freedom of speech in a country fighting to make democracy safe in the world”.
Megan Trudell: History of Struggle: The uprising of the twenty thousand
Socialist Worker nr. 2183, jan 10 – side 6
Note: Megan Trudell explains how a century ago, young, migrant, women workers in New York struck – and won.
John Newsinger: A textbook protest
Socialist Review nr. 336, maj 09 – side 21
Note: In Chicago the Great Depression led to the witholding of teachers' wages. John Newsinger shows how the teachers fought back – and won
John Newsinger: 1934: year of the fightback (USA)
International Socialism Journal nr. 122, apr 09 – side 65
Note: There was a great strike wave in the US in the aftermath of the First World War. It was beaten back with the decisive defeat of a rank and file driven campaign to organise the steel industry. Brutal repression was compounded by, at best, only half-hearted support from the American Federation of Labour (AFL).
Once the unions had been contained the employers prepared for what has been described as “a war of extermination against organised labour”.
Christian Hogsbjerg: Trotsky on race in the US
International Socialism Journal nr. 121, jan 09 – side 99
Note: Leon Trotsky’s life and work were intrinsically intertwined with the rise and fall of the Russian Revolution. Trotsky was also an outstanding internationalist and, although he did not write a great deal on the African diaspora as a whole, he did address what was known by revolutionary socialists at the time as the “Negro question”—the systematic racism suffered by black people in the United States.
Megan Trudell: Radical America: The 1930s revival of US working class struggle
Socialist Worker nr. 2114, aug 08 – side 6
Note: In the last part of our series on Radical America Megan Trudell looks at how US workers reacted to the Great Depression
Megan Trudell: Radical America: The 1920s were a decade of defeat for working people
Socialist Worker nr. 2113, aug 08 – side 6
Note: The “Roaring 1920s” were characterised by savage repression and profiteering
Megan Trudell: Radical America: Battling US capitalism and union corruption
Socialist Worker nr. 2112, aug 08 – side 6
Note: In the first part of our new series Megan Trudell looks at the history of working class struggles in the US.
John Newsinger: The uprising of the 30,000
Socialist Review nr. 327, jul 08 – side 22
Note: Migrant workers have historically found it difficult to organise and fight. John Newsinger writes of a furious strike over conditions in New York, 1909, waged by newly organised migrant women garment workers who fought bitterly to the brink of victory, despite hired thugs and conservative union leaders.
Nigel Davey: The Great Depression: Roosevelt’s double edged New Deal
Socialist Worker nr. 2095, apr 08 – side 8
Note: Last month saw the 75th anniversary of the inauguration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s (FDR) as US president. His election took place at a critical moment in the country’s history.
John Newsinger: Class war at Christmas
Socialist Review nr. 320, dec 07 – side 22
Note: A Woody Guthrie song commemorates the heroic attempts by Michigan copper miners to achieve union recognition in 1913. The bosses resorted to any murderous means they could and in one incident 62 children were crushed to death. John Newsinger looks at how class war was waged in the US.
Chris Bambery: Sacco and Vanzetti: Murdered by an American crusade against ‘terrorism’
Socialist Worker nr. 2066, sep 07 – side 9
Note: The last 100 years of the US’s history has been punctuated at regular intervals with crusades not just against the enemy without but the enemy within. That has involved the legal death sentence and extra-legal lynchings and assassinations.
Megan Trudell: The hidden history of US radicalism
International Socialism Journal nr. 111, jun 06 – side 49
Note: May Day in the US this year was very different to any in living memory, as hundreds of thousands of immigrant workers struck and demonstrated. But the country does have a long history of sudden and very radical class struggles. Megan Trudell provides an overview of these – and of the way they have been contained in the past by the Democratic Party.
Andy Strouthous: Poisoned fruit of patriotism
International Socialism Journal nr. 111, jun 06 – side 175
Note: A review of Carl R Weinberg: "Labor, Loyalty, Rebellion: Southwestern Illinois Coal Miners and World War I" (Southern Illinois University Press, 2005), £20.95
Mike Davis: Happy Birthday Big Bill
Socialist Review nr. 292, jan 05 – side 23
Note: A hundred years ago the Industrial Workers of the World was formed and US bosses trembled.
Mike Davis commemorates the centenary of a high point in American socialist history.
Hassan Mahamdallie: Defying the colour line (Brian Kelly: "Race, Class and Power in the Alabama Coalfields, 1908-21")
International Socialism Journal nr. 98, mar 03 – side 107
Note: A Deutscher Prize winning history of Alabama coal miners
Theresa Bennett: When workers humbled General Motors
Socialist Worker nr. 1731, jan 01 – side 10
Note: In the United States in the 1930s thousands of car workers took on General Motors, the world's biggest corporation, and won. Their struggle forced GM to recognise the United Auto Workers union throughout its plants and transformed the trade union movement in the US.
John Newsinger: Matewan: film and working class struggle
International Socialism Journal nr. 66, mar 95 – side 89
Note: Matewan is one of the finest films about working class struggle. John Newsinger pays tribute to its maker, John Sayles, but also uncovers the equally heroic struggles which surrounded the events that made it to celluloid.
Jim Scott: The Revolutionary Calender: February 1937
Socialist Review nr. 40, feb 82 – side 36
Note: In February 1937, the US working class won one of its decisive victories. The United Automobile Workers (UAW) forced the mighty General Motors to surrender and grant union recognition.

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